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Chapter 31 Junior gunnery officer
A. Gunnery department
B. Administrative duties
C. Sources of information
D. Gunnery exercises
                                               C. Sources of Information

31C1. General

It has already been pointed out that modern ordnance equipment is extremely complex gear. It has been designed to meet certain specifications based on the best assumptions as to the type weapons the enemy will use against our Navy. A great deal of time and money has gone into the development of various fire control systems, guns and ammunition, and the component parts thereof.

To ensure that this expensive material is properly maintained and handled, the Bureau of Ordnance issues various publications to standardize the methods and practices employed throughout the fleet.

Likewise, to ensure standardization of tactical employment of armament, fleet and type doctrines are published by cognizant commanders and issued to ships of their command.

All these publications are carried aboard ship and must be studied by the junior officer. They vary in classification from unclassified to secret, but for the most part are confidential.

Confidential nonregistered publications will be in the custody of the Gunnery Officer and may be drawn from the Gunnery Office. Secret and confidential registered publications will be held by the officer in charge of registered publications (an assistant to the Communications Officer). They may be drawn by individual officers on custody receipt.

A more recent classification, applicable to certain types of publications, including some training publications, is the classification ďConfidential-Modified Handling Authorized.Ē Publications falling within this classification may be handled and stowed less rigorously than confidential publications, although adequate protection must still be given them. Individual instructions are promulgated by the command.

31C2. Bureau of Ordnance Manual (BuOrd Manual)

The Bureau of Ordnance Manual is broad in scope. It is designed as the basic directive publication for the Naval Ordnance Establishment and deals with naval ordnance material, afloat and ashore. It contains information which the service at large needs to know.

The following portions of the manual are aimed particularly at the Fleet:

1. Sources of ordnance information and specific information of wide interest and value.
2. References to specific publications of interest and value.
3. Expression of policy of assistance to the Fleet.
4. Lists of media for technical training.
5. Specific coverage of safety precautions.

The manual contains information relative to the broad responsibilities of the Bureau of Ordnance and its functions in discharging those responsibilities.

The purpose of the Bureau of Ordnance Manual is briefly summarized below:

1. To place on record information calculated to assist in effecting the maximum efficiency of ordnance material.

2. To encourage officers in a thorough study and understanding of all details of ordnance activities, materials, and equipment under their charge; and to provide basic information to facilitate such study and understanding.

3. To provide a means by which constructive criticism and suggestions may be made by the service at large concerning ordnance activities and ordnance materials and equipment.

4. To provide a common nomenclature and method for standard usage in official correspondence and in instructions, both written and oral, concerning ordnance material and ordnance activities.

The treatment of ordnance material as handled in the Manual is general and basic. For instance, for full information and complete details of a particular turret or gun it will be necessary to refer to the appropriate Ordnance Pamphlet, a publication which will be discussed later.

31C3. Instructions and Notices

Bureau of Ordnance Instructions and Notices disseminate information on (1) general policy matters of the Bureau; (2) operating procedures, capabilities and limitations of ordnance equipment; (3) and changes to the Bureau of Ordnance Manual.

31C4. Ordnance Pamphlets (OPís)

Ordnance pamphlets contain detailed information on the description and maintenance of ordnance equipment. A separate Ordnance Pamphlet is issued for each unit of ordnance equipment; in addition, other Ordnance Pamphlets contain more general instructions or such data as range tables, nomenclature lists, etc. Registered Ordnance Pamphlets are issued as ORD instead of OP Ordnance Pamphlets are numbered serially and are listed both by number and by subject in OP 0, the Index of Ordnance Publications. The following non-confidential Ordnance Pamphlets are of general interest:

OP 4, Ammunition, Instructions for the Naval Service Afloat.

OP 556, Optical Equipment, the Principles of Stereoscopic Vision.

OP 599, Ordnance Drafting Room Regulations. OP 762, Alignment of Ordnance Installations on Board Ship.

31C5. Allowance lists

When a ship is placed in commission or when new ordnance material is issued to a ship already in commission, an allowance list is prepared and issued to the ship for each group or type of equipment, to cover all the articles which the vessel is supposed to carry. The allowance lists of an individual ship cover ammunition, the main units and subunits of equipment (such as guns, mounts, fire control instruments, etc.) and also the spare parts, accessories, and special tools which are required for the maintenance of this material. The allowance lists show quantities as well as designating name, description, and drawing numbers of items. As allowance lists are authority for obtaining the material contained therein, articles contained on the allowance lists but not on board may be requisitioned from supply activities or, in certain cases, from repair ships or other vessels.

31C6. Ordnance drawings and ordnance sketches

Each piece of ordnance material is shown on an ordnance drawing or a group of drawings in sufficient detail to permit the manufacture of the article. In addition, ordnance drawings may be prepared to show general arrangements, lubrication instructions, and other design information which, although not necessary for manufacture, is required for operation or upkeep purposes. Ordnance sketches are either line sketches, which are used in place of drawings for primary or experimental material, or list sketches, which list by number all the drawings pertaining to one unit assembly or type of ordnance material.

Ships in commission are required to carry full sets of the ordnance drawings and list sketches pertaining to the equipment carried on board. In addition, for more ready reference, they are usually provided with reduced-size photoprints of the pertinent drawings.

By reference to the list sketch or drawings for the mark and modification of a given assembly or subassembly, it is possible to trace through the sketch list of drawings for the mark and mod of the basic unit and the individual drawings making up that unit, to identify the correct nomenclature, the drawing and piece number, the design dimensions and tolerances, and all the other information relating to an individual part. Each individual part is identified in allowance lists by its drawing and piece number. Whenever possible, it is also identified by having the drawing and piece number stamped or engraved on the part.

31C7. Other BuOrd publications

Other publications issued by the Bureau of Ordnance include the following:

1. Ordnance Data (ODís). These contain information regarding inspection and test data of ordnance equipment. Some ODís contain information of a more general nature. ODís are indexed in OP 0.

2. Ordnance Specifications (OSís). These publications provide specifications for manufacturers producing ordnance equipment. Some of the specifications, especially those dealing with lubricants, are of general interest.

3. Ordnance Standards (OSTDís). Ordnance standards provide a guide for the standardization of Bureau of Ordnance methods of drafting and manufacture.

4. Ordnance Alterations (ORDALTS). Ordnance alterations provide instructions for alterations to installed ordnance equipment. They are described above.

31C8. Publications issued by other than Bureau of Ordnance

Information parallel to that contained in ordnance publications but with respect to items obtained by the Bureau of Ordnance from the United States Army is contained in Army publications which are made available to the Naval service through the same channels as Bureau of Ordnance publications.

Publications which define the tactical employment of ships and armament are usually published by the Chief of Naval Operations. They treat all the modern concepts of naval warfare, from amphibious assaults to fast carrier task force operations. They deal with the role of each type of ship in all the various phases of naval warfare.

Three new publications series, Naval Warfare Publications (NWPís), Naval Warfare In formation Publications (NWIPís), and Fleet Exercise Publications (FXPís) are in the process of being distributed to the Fleet. NWIPís amplify NWPís by giving procedural and technical details not appropriate in the parent book. FXPís establish a reference and guide for the conduct of fleet and individual ship exercises.

Of more immediate interest to the junior officer are the publications which are issued by Fleet and Type Commanders concerning gunnery doctrine. Gunnery doctrines comprise standard procedures for the most effective control of guns, based on past experience and the capabilities of the particular batteries. The junior officer must know the doctrine for his battery by heart. He must insist that all personnel under him, particularly those in control stations, shall also be completely familiar with provisions of the doctrine.

The Gunnery Department Organization Book is compiled by the Shipís Gunnery Officer to provide for the proper administration of his department. It includes the specialized duties of the officers and leading petty officers of the department, as well as the administrative routine. It is therefore essential that all officers of the Gunnery Department become familiar with this book as soon as possible after reporting on board.

The Bureau of Naval Personnel publishes a series of Navy Training Courses based on the requirements for advancement in rating of enlisted personnel. The junior gunnery officer will find those books relating to ordnance ratings valuable supplements to the technical literature of his profession.